G20 Leaders Declaration
1. We, the Leaders of the G20, convened in Los Cabos on 18-19 June 2012.
2. We are united in our resolve to promote growth and jobs.
3. Since we last met, the global recovery has continued to face a number of challenges. Financial
market tensions are high. External, fiscal and financial imbalances are still prevalent, having a
major impact on growth and employment prospects and confidence. Clearly, the global economy
remains vulnerable, with a negative impact on the everyday lives of people all over the world,
affecting jobs, trade, development, and the environment.
4. We will act together to strengthen recovery and address financial market tensions.
5. We will work collectively to strengthen demand and restore confidence with a view to support
growth and foster financial stability in order to create high quality jobs and opportunities for all of
our citizens. We have agreed today on a coordinated Los Cabos Growth and Jobs Action Plan to
achieve those goals.
6. Euro Area members of the G20 will take all necessary policy measures to safeguard the integrity
and stability of the area, improve the functioning of financial markets and break the feedback loop
between sovereigns and banks. We look forward to the Euro Area working in partnership with the
next Greek government to ensure they remain on the path to reform and sustainability within the
7. We are implementing our structural and regulatory reform agenda to enhance medium-term
growth prospects and build more resilient financial systems. We remain committed to reduce
imbalances by strengthening deficit countries’ public finances with sound and sustainable policies
that take into account evolving economic conditions and, in countries with large current account
surpluses, by strengthening domestic demand and moving toward greater exchange rate
8. Despite the challenges we all face domestically, we have agreed that multilateralism is of even
greater importance in the current climate, and remains our best asset to resolve the global
9. Recognizing the impact of the continuing crisis on developing countries, particularly low income
countries, we will intensify our efforts to create a more conducive environment for development,
including supporting infrastructure investment. Our policy actions will improve living conditions
across the globe and protect the most vulnerable. In particular, by stabilizing global markets and
promoting stronger growth, we will generate significant positive effects on development and
poverty reduction across the globe.
Supporting economic stabilization and the global recovery
10. Strong, sustainable and balanced growth remains the top priority of the G20, as it leads to higher job
creation and increases the welfare of people across the world. We are committed to adopting all
necessary policy measures to strengthen demand, support global growth and restore confidence,
address short and medium-term risks, enhance job creation and reduce unemployment, as reflected
in the Los Cabos Growth and Jobs Action Plan (see Annex). We will implement all our commitments
in a timely manner and rigorously monitor their implementation.
11. Against the background of renewed market tensions, Euro Area members of the G20 will take all
necessary measures to safeguard the integrity and stability of the area, improve the functioning of
financial markets and break the feedback loop between sovereigns and banks. We welcome the
significant actions taken since the last summit by the Euro Area to support growth, ensure financial
stability and promote fiscal responsibility as a contribution to the G20 framework for strong,
sustainable and balanced growth.
In this context, we welcome Spain’s plan to recapitalize its banking
system and the Eurogroup’s announcement of support for Spain’s financial restructuring authority.
The adoption of the Fiscal Compact and its ongoing implementation, together with growth-enhancing
policies and structural reform and financial stability measures, are important steps towards greater
fiscal and economic integration that lead to sustainable borrowing costs.
The imminent establishment
of the European Stability Mechanism is a substantial strengthening of the European firewalls. We fully
support the actions of the Euro Area in moving forward with the completion of the Economic and
Towards that end, we support the intention to consider concrete steps towards a
more integrated financial architecture, encompassing banking supervision, resolution and
recapitalization, and deposit insurance.
Euro Area members will foster intra Euro Area adjustment
through structural reforms to strengthen competitiveness in deficit countries and to promote demand
and growth in surplus countries.
The European Union members of the G20 are determined to move
forward expeditiously on measures to support growth including through completing the European
Single Market and making better use of European financial means, such as the European Investment
Bank (EIB), pilot project bonds, and structural and cohesion funds, for more targeted investment,
employment, growth and competitiveness, while maintaining the firm commitment to implement fiscal
consolidation to be assessed on a structural basis.
We look forward to the Euro Area working in
partnership with the next Greek government to ensure they remain on the path to reform and
sustainability within the Euro Area.
12. All G20 members will take the necessary actions to strengthen global growth and restore confidence.
Advanced economies will ensure that the pace of fiscal consolidation is appropriate to support the
recovery, taking country-specific circumstances into account and, in line with the Toronto
commitments, address concerns about medium term fiscal sustainability.
Those advanced and
emerging economies which have fiscal space will let the automatic fiscal stabilizers to operate taking
into account national circumstances and current demand conditions.
Should economic conditions
deteriorate significantly further, those countries with sufficient fiscal space stand ready to coordinate
and implement discretionary fiscal actions to support domestic demand, as appropriate. In many
countries, higher investment in education, innovation and infrastructure can support the creation of
jobs now while raising productivity and future growth prospects.
Recognizing the need to pursue
growth-oriented policies that support demand and recovery, the United States will calibrate the pace
of its fiscal consolidation by ensuring that its public finances are placed on a sustainable long-run path
so that a sharp fiscal contraction in 2013 is avoided.
13. Monetary policy will maintain price stability over the medium term while continuing to support the
economic recovery. We will strengthen confidence in our banks, maintaining momentum on the
financial sector reforms needed to safeguard our financial systems over the medium term while taking
appropriate actions to protect credit channels and the integrity of the global payment and settlement
systems. Healthy banks, with an ability to lend, are critical to the global recovery.
14. G20 members will remain vigilant of the evolution of oil prices and will stand ready to carry out
additional actions as needed, including the commitment by producing countries to continue to
ensure an appropriate level of supply consistent with demand. We welcome Saudi Arabia’s
readiness to mobilize, as necessary, existing spare capacity to ensure adequate supply. We will
also remain vigilant of other commodity prices.
15. A number of emerging markets are now also experiencing a slowdown in growth. In response,
these countries are appropriately directing monetary and fiscal policies to support growth while
ensuring stability and, in some cases, introducing new measures to boost their economies, in
particular through strengthening domestic demand in a context of weaker external demand.
16. We welcome progress by countries with large current account surpluses to increase domestic
demand and actions by countries with large current account deficits to increase national savings.
Emerging surplus economies will carry out further actions to increase domestic consumption,
including by removing price and tax distortions and strengthening social safety nets, while
advanced surplus economies or those with relatively weak private demand will promote domestic
demand, notably through the liberalization of service sectors and the promotion of investment,
including through the removal of inefficiencies. Higher national savings in countries with current
account deficits will contribute to a lasting reduction in global imbalances.
We recognize the
special circumstances of large commodity exporters with regard to current account surpluses. We
reaffirm our commitment to move more rapidly toward market-determined exchange rate systems
and exchange rate flexibility to reflect underlying fundamentals, avoid persistent exchange rate
misalignments, and refrain from competitive devaluation of currencies. We also welcome the
commitment by China to allow market forces to play a larger role in determining movements in
the Remnimbi (RMB), continue to reform its exchange rate regime, and to increase the
transparency of its exchange rate policy.
17. All G20 members have put forward structural reform commitments to strengthen and sustain
global demand, foster job creation, contribute to global rebalancing and increase growth potential.
These include product market reforms to increase competition, measures to stabilize the housing
sector, labor market reforms to boost competitiveness and employment, as well as steps to
strengthen social safety nets in a way that is fiscally responsible, advance tax reform to raise
productivity, increase investment in infrastructure, and promote inclusive green growth and
sustainable development as appropriate to country circumstances. We ask Finance Ministers and
Central Bank Governors to consider ways in which the G20 can foster investment in infrastructure
and ensure the availability of sufficient funding for infrastructure projects, including Multilateral
Development Banks’ (MDBs) financing and technical support.
18. In all policy areas, we commit to minimize the negative spillovers on other countries of policies
implemented for domestic purposes. We reaffirm our shared interest in a strong and stable
international financial system.
While capital flows can be beneficial to recipient economies, we
reiterate that excess volatility of financial flows and disorderly movements in exchange rates have
adverse implications for economic and financial stability.
19. Recognizing the importance of transparency and accountability in reinforcing credibility and
confidence, we have agreed on the Los Cabos Accountability Assessment Framework that
accompanies the Growth and Jobs Action Plan. This Framework establishes the procedures we
will follow to report on progress in implementing our policy commitments. We welcome the first
Accountability Report under this new framework. We task our Finance Ministers and Central Bank
Governors to present the second Accountability Report for the Leaders’ Summit in St. Petersburg
Employment and Social Protection
20. Quality employment is at the heart of our macroeconomic policies. Jobs with labor rights, social
security coverage and decent income contribute to more stable growth, enhance social inclusion
and reduce poverty. We therefore endorse the recommendations of our Labor and Employment
Ministers to urgently combat unemployment through appropriate labor market measures and
fostering the creation of decent work and quality jobs, particularly for youth and other vulnerable
groups, who have been severely hit by the economic crisis. We reaffirm our commitment to youth
to facilitate their access to quality jobs, which will boost their life prospects.
We welcome the work
of the G20 Task Force on Employment and extend its mandate for an additional year in the terms
proposed by our Ministers. Consistent with the Los Cabos Growth and Jobs Action Plan, we
consider that structural reforms, in full respect of the fundamental principles and rights at work,
can play an important role in lifting economic growth to generate labor market opportunities,
mobility and jobs. We also commit to intensify our efforts to strengthen cooperation in education,
skills development and training policies, including internship and on-the-job training, which
support a successful school-to-work transition.
21. Creating jobs and reducing unemployment, particularly among our youth and those most affected
by the crisis, is central to all our countries. We welcome the report by the International Labour
Organization (ILO), Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD),
International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank on boosting jobs and living standards in G20
countries. We will continue to focus on measures to accelerate the pace of the recovery in jobs
and the reduction in unemployment.
22. We recognize the importance of establishing nationally determined social protection floors. We
will continue to foster inter-agency and international policy coherence, coordination, cooperation
and knowledge sharing to assist low-income countries in capacity building for implementing
nationally determined social protection floors. We ask international organizations to identify policy
options with low-income countries on how to develop effective sustainable protection floors.
23. We commit to take concrete actions to overcome the barriers hindering women’s full economic
and social participation and to expand economic opportunities for women in G20 economies. We
also express our firm commitment to advance gender equality in all areas, including skills training,
wages and salaries, treatment in the workplace, and responsibilities in care-giving.
24. We ask our Labor Ministers to review progress made on this agenda and we welcome
consultations with social partners. In this regard, we appreciate the contribution of the Business-
20 (B20) and Labor-20 (L20) to the process of the G20 under the Mexican Presidency.
25. We recognize the role of travel and tourism as a vehicle for job creation, economic growth and
development, and, while recognizing the sovereign right of States to control the entry of foreign
nationals, we will work towards developing travel facilitation initiatives in support of job creation,
quality work, poverty reduction and global growth.
26. We are firmly committed to open trade and investment, expanding markets and resisting
protectionism in all its forms, which are necessary conditions for sustained global economic
recovery, jobs and development. We underline the importance of an open, predictable, rulesbased,
transparent multilateral trading system and are committed to ensure the centrality of the
World Trade Organization (WTO).
27. Recognizing the importance of investment for boosting economic growth, we commit to
maintaining a supportive business environment for investors.
28. We are deeply concerned about rising instances of protectionism around the world. Following up
our commitment made in Cannes, we reaffirm our standstill commitment until the end of 2014
with regard to measures affecting trade and investment, and our pledge to roll back any new
protectionist measure that may have arisen, including new export restrictions and WTOinconsistent
measures to stimulate exports. We also undertake to notify in a timely manner trade
and investment restrictive measures. We uphold the inventory and monitoring work of the WTO,
OECD and United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) on trade and
investment measures and encourage them to reinforce and deepen the work in these areas,
consistent with their respective mandates.
29. We value the discussion held by our Trade Ministers in Puerto Vallarta on the relevance of
regional and global value chains to world trade, recognizing their role in fostering economic
growth, employment and development and emphasizing the need to enhance the participation of
developing countries in such value chains. We encourage a deepening of these discussions in
the WTO, UNCTAD and OECD within their respective mandates, and we call on them to
accelerate their work on analyzing the functioning of global value chains and their relationship
with trade and investment flows, development and jobs, as well as on how to measure trade
flows, to better understand how our actions affect our countries and others, and to report on
progress under Russia’s Presidency.
30. In line with the Cannes Communiqué, we stand by the Doha Development Agenda mandate and
reaffirm our commitment to pursue fresh, credible approaches to furthering trade negotiations
across the board. We will continue to work towards concluding the Doha Round negotiations,
including outcomes in specific areas where progress is possible, such as trade facilitation, and
other issues of concern for least developed countries. We urge progress in streamlining WTO
accession procedures for the world’s poorest countries.
31. We support strengthening the WTO through improving the way it conducts its regular business,
and its dispute settlement system. We also direct our representatives to further discussions on
challenges and opportunities for the multilateral trading system in a globalized economy.
Strengthening the international financial architecture
32. We recognize the importance of effective global and regional safety nets. We welcome the firm
commitments to increase the resources available to the IMF. This is the result of a broad
international cooperative effort that includes a significant number of countries. The commitments
exceed $450 billion and are in addition to the quota increase under the 2010 Reform.
resources will be available for the whole membership of the IMF, and not earmarked for any
particular region. These resources, which qualify as reserve assets, would be channeled through
bilateral loans and investments such as note purchase agreements to the IMF’s General
Resources Account under the modalities which have been approved by the IMF Executive Board.
This effort shows the G20 and the international community’s commitment to take the steps
needed to safeguard global financial stability and enhance the IMF’s role in crisis prevention and
33. We reaffirm our commitment to implement in full the 2010 Quota and Governance Reform by the
agreed date of the 2012 IMF/World Bank Annual Meetings. These reforms are crucial to
enhancing the IMF’s legitimacy, relevance and effectiveness, and will support efforts to further
strengthen Fund surveillance and to ensure that the IMF is adequately resourced to play its
systemic role. As part of these reforms, we are committed to completing the comprehensive
review of the quota formula, to address deficiencies and weaknesses in the current quota
formula, by January 2013 and to complete the next general review of quotas by January 2014.
We agree that the formula should be simple and transparent, consistent with the multiple roles of
quotas, result in calculated shares that are broadly acceptable to the membership, and be
feasible to implement based on timely, high quality and widely available data. We reaffirm that the
distribution of quotas based on the formula should better reflect the relative weights of IMF
members in the world economy, which have changed substantially in view of strong GDP growth
in dynamic emerging markets and developing countries. We reaffirm the importance of continuing
to protect the voice and representation of the poorest members of the IMF. We ask our Finance
Ministers and Central Bank Governors to review progress on this issue when they meet in
34. We agreed that the current surveillance framework should be significantly enhanced, including
through a better integration of bilateral and multilateral surveillance with a focus on global,
domestic and financial stability, including spillovers from countries’ policies. We welcome the
work of the IMF to advance considerations for a proposed integrated surveillance decision and
commit to support the decision process. We underscore the importance of rigorous surveillance
on exchange rate policies and support a more ample coverage of surveillance activities, where
relevant, including global liquidity, capital flows, capital account measures, reserve and fiscal,
monetary and financial sector policies that could have an impact on external stability. We
welcome the IMF’s ongoing work to produce an external sector report, which would strengthen
multilateral analysis and enhance the transparency of surveillance. We also recognize that
political ownership and traction is critical to effective surveillance, and that the International
Monetary and Financial Committee (IMFC) has a role in facilitating the active involvement of all
IMF members. We look forward to substantial progress by the next IMF/World Bank Annual
35. We welcome the interim progress report and look forward to the joint annual progress report to
support the development of local currency bond markets to be prepared by the World Bank,
Regional Development Banks, IMF, OECD and the Bank of International Settlements (BIS). The
full report will be presented at the November meeting of G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank
Governors. This issue is of great importance to emerging markets and developing countries,
recognizing that the liquidity, efficiency and operation of these markets are being challenged by
the current global financial situation.
Reforming the financial sector and fostering financial inclusion
36. We welcome the progress report by the Financial Stability Board (FSB) on taking forward the G20
commitments for strengthening financial stability and the FSB’s enhanced monitoring of
implementation at the national level. We are committed to the timely, full and consistent
implementation of agreed policies in order to support a stable and integrated global financial
system and to prevent future crises.
37. We welcome the publication of the traffic lights scoreboard to track progress in the
implementation of all our financial reform recommendations and pledge to take all necessary
actions to make progress in the areas where difficulties in policy development or implementation
have been identified.
38. In particular, we recognize the substantial progress to date in the priority reform areas identified
by the FSB’s Coordination Framework for Implementation Monitoring (CFIM): the Basel capital
and liquidity framework; the framework for global systemically important financial institutions (GSIFIs),
resolution regimes, over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives reforms, shadow banking, and
compensation practices. We commit to complete work in these important areas to achieve full
implementation of reforms.
39. We reaffirm our commitment that all standardized OTC derivative contracts should be traded on
exchanges or electronic trading platforms, where appropriate, and cleared through central counterparties by end-2012, OTC derivative contracts should be reported to trade repositories
and non-centrally cleared contracts should be subject to higher capital requirements. We
welcome the FSB progress report on implementation. Now that substantial progress has been
achieved in the four safeguards for a resilient and efficient global framework for central clearing,
jurisdictions should rapidly finalize their decision-making and put in place the needed legislation
and regulations to meet the G20 commitment for central clearing. We acknowledge the progress
made to develop the key principles to promote internationally consistent minimum standards for
the margining of non-centrally cleared derivatives and encourage international standard setters to
finalize the proposed global margin standards by the end of this year, to match the
implementation deadline for other OTC derivatives reforms and for the Basel capital framework.
40. We welcome progress in implementing Basel II, 2.5 and III and urge jurisdictions to fully
implement the standards according to the agreed timelines. We welcome the Basel Committee’s
consultative proposals for a fundamental review of the market risk framework. We welcome the
FSB’s progress report on the implementation of the principles and standards for sound
compensation practices, reaffirm our commitment to ensure that these are followed and ask the
FSB to continue its ongoing monitoring.
41. We reiterate our commitment to make our national resolution regimes consistent with the FSB
Key Attributes of Effective Resolution Regimes so that no bank or other financial institution is “too
big to fail”. To this end, we also support the ongoing elaboration of recovery and resolution plans
and institution-specific cross-border cooperation agreements for all G-SIFIs. We reiterate our
commitment to strengthen the intensity and effectiveness of the supervision of SIFIs and ask the
FSB to report on further progress in this area to the November 2012 G20 Finance Ministers and
Central Bank Governors’ meeting.
42. We welcome progress on developing a set of principles as a common framework for the
identification of, and policy measures relating to, domestic systemically important banks (D-SIBs)
and ask our Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors to review recommendations in these
areas at their meeting in November. We support continuing work for the strengthening of the
oversight and regulation of the shadow banking system, and look forward to our Finance
Ministers and Central Bank Governors reviewing recommendations in these areas at their
meeting in November. We ask the FSB in consultation with the International Association of
Insurance Supervisors (IAIS) to complete their work on identification and policy measures for
global systemically important insurers by April 2013. Towards reducing systemic risk, we look
forward to the preparation by the FSB in consultation with International Organization of Securities
Commissions (IOSCO) of methodologies to identify other systemically important non-bank
financial entities by end-2012 and call on Committee on Payment and Settlement Systems
(CPSS) and IOSCO to continue their work on systemically important market infrastructures. We
also ask the IAIS to continue its work to develop a common framework for the supervision of
internationally active insurance groups by end-2013.
43. We call for accelerated progress by national authorities and standard setting bodies in ending the
mechanistic reliance on credit ratings and encourage steps that would enhance transparency of
and competition among credit rating agencies. We support continuing work to achieve
convergence to a single set of high-quality accounting standards. We welcome IOSCO’s report
on the functioning of the credit default swap markets and ask IOSCO to report on next steps by
the November 2012 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors’ meeting.
44. We endorse the FSB recommendations regarding the framework for development of a global
legal entity identifier (LEI) system for parties to financial transactions, with a global governance
framework representing the public interest. The LEI system will be launched by March 2013 and
we ask the FSB to report on implementation progress by the November 2012 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors’ meeting. We encourage global adoption of the LEI to support
authorities and market participants in identifying and managing financial risks.
45. We welcome the FSB study, prepared in coordination with the IMF and the World Bank, to
identify potential unintended consequences of the agreed financial regulatory reforms for
Emerging Markets and Developing Economies (EMDEs). We encourage continued monitoring
analysis and reporting by the FSB and dialogue among the FSB, standard-setters, international
financial institutions and national authorities of EMDEs, to address material unintended
consequences as appropriate without prejudice to our commitment to implement the agreed
46. We endorse the recommendations and the revised FSB Charter for placing the FSB on an
enduring organizational footing, with legal personality, strengthened governance, greater financial
autonomy and enhanced capacity to coordinate the development and implementation of financial
regulatory policies, while maintaining strong links with the BIS. We call for a full implementation of
the recommendations by our next meeting and substantial progress by the November 2012
Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors’ meeting. We call on the FSB to continue to keep
under review the structure of its representation.
47. We welcome the ongoing work by the FSB on adherence to supervisory and regulatory
information exchange and cooperation standards and look forward to a further public statement
on progress under the initiative ahead of the Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors’
meeting in November 2012.
48. In the tax area, we reiterate our commitment to strengthen transparency and comprehensive
exchange of information. We commend the progress made as reported by the Global Forum and
urge all countries to fully comply with the standard and implement the recommendations identified
in the course of the reviews, in particular the 13 jurisdictions whose framework does not allow
them to qualify to phase 2 at this stage. We expect the Global Forum to quickly start examining
the effectiveness of information exchange practices and to report to us and our finance ministers.
We welcome the OECD report on the practice of automatic information exchange, where we will
continue to lead by example in implementing this practice. We call on countries to join this
growing practice as appropriate and strongly encourage all jurisdictions to sign the Multilateral
Convention on Mutual Administrative Assistance. We also welcome the efforts to enhance
interagency cooperation to tackle illicit flows including the outcomes of the Rome meeting of the
Oslo Dialogue. We reiterate the need to prevent base erosion and profit shifting and we will follow
with attention the ongoing work of the OECD in this area.
49. We support the renewal of the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) mandate, thereby sustaining
global efforts to combat money laundering and the financing of terrorism and proliferation of
weapons of mass destruction. G20 members also welcome the adoption of the revised FATF
standards and look forward to their implementation. We welcome the progress made by FATF in
identifying and monitoring high-risk jurisdictions with strategic Anti-Money Laundering/Counter-
Terrorist Financing (AML/CFT) deficiencies, using AML/CFT tools in the fight against corruption,
improving transparency of corporate vehicles and increasing cooperation against tax crimes,
addressing the risks posed by tax havens, as well as in increasing the reach and the
effectiveness of AML/CFT measures by also considering financial inclusion efforts. We look
forward to the completion in 2013 of the update of the FATF assessment process for the next
round of mutual evaluations.
50. We welcome the progress made by the Global Partnership for Financial Inclusion (GPFI) on
implementing the five recommendations set out in its 2011 report and call on the GPFI to
continue working towards their full implementation. We endorse the G20 Basic Set of financial inclusion indicators developed by the GPFI. Recognizing the key role that SMEs play in economic
development, and poverty reduction, we welcome the launch of the SME Finance Compact that
will support developing innovative models and approaches to address the specific access to
finance challenges and constraints faced by developing countries with regards to SME finance.
We welcome the forthcoming GPFI conference on standard setting bodies and financial inclusion
as a means of helping to create an enabling regulatory environment, and we call on the GPFI to
report progress to our Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors in November. Finally, we
support the ongoing effort to create a fourth GPFI subgroup that will focus on consumer
protection and financial literacy issues.
51. We acknowledge the efforts of those G20 and non-G20 countries committed to national
coordination platforms and strategies for financial inclusion under the “G20 Financial Inclusion
Peer Learning Program” and encourage similar efforts to advance effective implementation of the
G20 Principles for Innovative Financial Inclusion such as the commitments to concrete actions to
promote financial inclusion made by developing and emerging countries under the Maya
Declaration, recognizing the ongoing efforts and the support by the World Bank Group and the
Alliance for Financial Inclusion, and other stakeholders including the United Nations (UN), and
bilateral donors to foster financial inclusion.
52. On financial education, we endorse the OECD/International Network on Financial Education
(INFE) High Level Principles on National Strategies for Financial Education, and call on the
OECD/INFE and the World Bank in cooperation with the GPFI to deliver further tools to promote
financial education, with a progress report to the next Summit.
For advancing the financial
consumer protection agenda, we take note of the discussion on the Statutes of the International
Financial Consumer Protection Network (FinCoNet) and on the issues of formal structure and
financial support to ensure the exchange of best practices. We also endorse the Action Plan
presented by the G20/OECD Task Force on Financial Consumer Protection to develop effective
approaches to support the implementation of the High Level Principles on Financial Consumer
Protection, and look forward to an update report by the Leaders’ Summit in St. Petersburg in
53. We recognize the need for women and youth to gain access to financial services and financial
education, ask the GPFI, the OECD/INFE, and the World Bank to identify barriers they may face
and call for a progress report to be delivered by the next Summit.
54. We welcome the launch of the Mexico Financial Inclusion Challenge: Innovative Solutions for
Unlocking Access, a call for innovations that address barriers to financial inclusion through the
creation of valuable, affordable, secure, and comprehensive financial services.
Enhancing food security and addressing commodity price volatility
55. The Action Plan on Food Price Volatility and Agriculture adopted by the Ministers of Agriculture in
2011 underlined that to feed a world population expected to exceed 9.3 billion by 2050,
agricultural production will have to increase between 50 and 70 percent, and by almost 100
percent in developing countries. We recognize that increasing production and productivity on a
sustainable basis while considering the diversity of agricultural conditions is one of the most
important challenges that the world faces today. The crisis in the Sahel and the Horn of Africa
also underscores that strengthening emergency and long-term responses to food insecurity
remains a pressing challenge. We also note that chronic malnutrition is an enormous drain on a
country’s human resources, and we therefore support the Scaling Up Nutrition movement and
encourage wider involvement of G20 members.
56. We welcome the considerable progress made in implementing the Action Plan and the food
security pillar of the Seoul Multi-Year Action Plan on Development. We support the G20 Agriculture Vice-Ministers’ Report annexed to this Declaration, on the progress made on previous
commitments and key recommendations on sustainably increasing agricultural productivity,
containing inputs from several international organizations coordinated by the Food and
Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the OECD, in addition to other recommendations from B20
and civil society.
57. To fight hunger, we commit to continue our efforts on our initiatives, including the Tropical
Agriculture Platform, the Platform for Agricultural Risk Management, the GEO Global Agriculture
Monitoring, research initiatives for wheat, rice and corn, the Rapid Response Forum, regional
emergency food reserves, the Global Agriculture and Food Security Program and support for the
Principles of Responsible Agriculture Investment. Recognizing the important contribution of
greater transparency to reducing food price volatility, we welcome the progress made in the
implementation of the Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS). We recognize that a more
stable, predictable, distortion-free, open and transparent trading system, including as regards
agriculture, has a critical role to play to promote food security.
58. We reaffirm our commitment to remove export restrictions and extraordinary taxes on food
purchased for non-commercial humanitarian purposes by the World Food Programme (WFP).
We encourage the implementation of the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance
of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security.
59. We strongly welcome the launch of the “AgResults” Initiative, aimed at improving food security for
the poor and vulnerable by encouraging private sector innovation of new agricultural products
and systems constrained by market failures in agriculture. We look forward to the launch of the
pilot projects focused on innovations in nutrient-fortified crops, post-harvest waste-reducing
storage solutions and crop quality technologies in Sub-Saharan Africa. We commend those who
have already committed or signaled their intention to commit funding to this initiative and
encourage broader participation.
60. We recognize the need to adapt agriculture to climate change and we recognize the importance
of improving the efficiency of water and soil use in a sustainable manner. To this end, we support
the development of and a greater use of available technologies, well-known practices and
techniques such as soil fertility enhancement, minimum tillage and agroforestry, and call upon
international organizations to provide a report on science-based options to improve the efficiency
of water use in agriculture including in ways particularly suitable for small farms.
61. We recognize the importance to the global economic recovery of maintaining stability in
international commodity markets. We stress the importance of well-functioning and transparent
physical and financial commodities’ markets and reduced excessive price volatility to achieve
food security and strong growth that is both sustainable and inclusive. We recognize that
excessive commodity price volatility has significant implications for all countries, increasing
uncertainty for actors in the economy and potentially hampering stability of the budgets, and
predictability of economic planning. We recognize that mitigating the negative effects of
commodity price volatility on the most vulnerable is an important component of reducing poverty
and boosting economic growth. We therefore endorse the conclusions of the G20 report on the
macroeconomic impacts of excessive commodity price volatility on growth and its identification of
policy options that countries could consider, taking account of national circumstances to mitigate
any such effect. We also acknowledge and appreciate the participation and valuable inputs of the
IMF, World Bank and UNCTAD. We ask our Finance Ministers to report in 2013 on progress on
the G20’s contribution to facilitate better functioning of these physical markets, taking note of
possible areas of further work outlined in the report. We reaffirm our commitment to enhance
transparency and avoid abuse in financial commodity markets, including OTC, with effective
intervention powers for market regulators and authorities and an appropriate regulation and supervisory framework. In this regard we look forward to IOSCO’s report on the implementation
of its recommendations on commodity derivatives markets by November 2012.
62. We recognize that excessive price volatility in energy commodities is also an important source of
economic instability. We remain committed to well-functioning and transparent energy markets.
We will continue to work to improve the timeliness, completeness and reliability of JODI-Oil and
look forward to a progress report next year. We will work on the JODI-Gas database on the same
principles. We expect the International Energy Forum (IEF) report on improving the reliability of
the JODI-Oil database and the report on transparency in international gas and coal markets
submitted by the International Energy Agency (IEA), IEF, and Organization of the Petroleum
Exporting Countries (OPEC) to be discussed by our Finance Ministers in November. We also
look forward to IOSCO’s recommendations to improve the functioning and oversight of Price
Reporting Agencies in November 2012, which will be produced in collaboration with other
mandated organizations (IEF, IEA and OPEC), and task Finance Ministers to take concrete
measures in this area as necessary.
Meeting the Challenges of Development
63. Eradicating poverty and achieving strong, inclusive, sustainable and balanced growth remain core
objectives of the G20 development agenda. We reaffirm our commitment to work with developing
countries, particularly low income countries, and to support them in implementing the nationally
driven policies and priorities which are needed to fulfill internationally agreed development goals,
particularly the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and beyond.
64. We welcome the initiative of the Development Working Group to build upon the work of previous
G20 presidencies, and its focus on three priorities during the Mexican Presidency - food security,
infrastructure and inclusive green growth. We commend the progress achieved against our
commitments in the Seoul Multi-Year Action Plan, and support the 2012 Development Working
Group progress report annexed to this Declaration. We invite the Development Working Group to
explore putting in place a process for ensuring assessment and accountability for G20
development actions by the next Summit.
65. Investment in infrastructure is critical for sustained economic growth, poverty reduction, and job
creation. We therefore welcome the strong progress made under the Multi-Year Action Plan,
including in implementing the recommendations of the Multilateral Development Banks’ (MDBs)
Action Plan and the High Level Panel on Infrastructure.
66. While recognizing that public financing of infrastructure development projects in developing
countries remains essential, we consider it should be complemented by private sector
We encourage MDBs to continue progress under the Action Plan, and welcome the
report on addressing Misperception of Risk and Return in Low Income Countries. This contains
important messages about properly perceiving the risks posed, as well as the opportunities
offered, by long-term infrastructure investment in low income countries.
challenge that rapid urbanization poses and the need to make cities more sustainable, we
welcome the report on Best Practices for Urban Mass Transport Infrastructure Projects in Medium
and Large Cities in Developing Countries, and support the follow-up actions as set out in the
Development Working Group report.
67. We reaffirm our commitments to the global partnership for development, as set out in the MDGs,
and welcome efforts to contribute to this end, including the Global Partnership for Effective
Development Cooperation to be launched with voluntary participation under the auspices of the
broad consensus achieved at the 4th High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness held in Busan,
68. We recognize the value of Disaster Risk Management (DRM) tools and strategies to better
prevent disasters, protect populations and assets, and financially manage their economic
impacts. We appreciate World Bank and OECD combined efforts, with the UN’s support, to
provide inputs and broaden participation in the discussion on DRM. We welcome the World
Bank’s and Mexico’s joint publication on country experiences in this area with the support of G20
members, and look forward to the OECD voluntary framework to facilitate implementation of DRM
strategies, to be completed by November.
Promoting longer-term prosperity through inclusive green growth
69. The long-term development and prosperity of current and future generations requires us to look
beyond the immediate economic crisis. We acknowledge the importance of finding ways in which
economic growth, environmental protection and social inclusion can complement and reinforce
each other. Inclusive green growth in the context of sustainable development and poverty
eradication can help achieve our development and economic goals, while protecting our
environment, and improving social well-being on which our future depends. Inclusive green
growth should not be used to introduce protectionist measures.
70. We commit to continue to help developing countries sustain and strengthen their development
through appropriate measures, including those that encourage inclusive green growth. We will
reaffirm our commitment to sustainable development at the 2012 United Nations Conference on
Sustainable Development (Rio+20). We commit to maintaining a focus on inclusive green growth
as part of our G20 agenda and in the light of agreements reached at Rio+20 and the United
Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
71. Climate change will continue to have a significant impact on the world economy, and costs will be
higher to the extent we delay additional action. We reiterate our commitment to fight climate
change and welcome the outcome of the 17th Conference of the Parties to the UN climate
change conferences. We are committed to the full implementation of the outcomes of Cancun
and Durban and will work with Qatar as the incoming Presidency towards achieving a successful
and balanced outcome at COP-18. We emphasize the need to structurally transform economies
towards a climate-friendly path over the medium term. We welcome the creation of the G20 study
group on climate finance, in order to consider ways to effectively mobilize resources taking into
account the objectives, provisions and principles of the UNFCCC in line with the Cancun
Agreement and ask to provide a progress report to Finance Ministers in November. We support
the operationalization of the Green Climate Fund.
72. The Development Working Group discussed a broad set of practical, voluntary measures and
actions that have the potential to help countries define their paths towards sustainable
development based on their own circumstances and priorities. We believe that developing
countries should have access to institutions and mechanisms that can facilitate knowledge
sharing, resource mobilization and building technical and institutional capacity to design and
implement inclusive green growth strategies and policies. We welcome international efforts in
launching the Green Growth Knowledge Platform and will continue exploring options to provide
appropriate support to interested developing countries. We welcome the delivery of a nonprescriptive,
voluntary toolkit of policy options for inclusive green growth and encourage efforts to
promote its implementation. We encourage further exploration of effective mechanisms to
mobilize public and private funds for inclusive green growth investment in developing countries,
including through the public-private Dialogue Platform on Inclusive Green Investments. We
welcome the B20’s Green Growth Action Alliance.
73. We highlight that green growth and sustainable development have strong potential to stimulate
long term prosperity and well being. We welcome the report prepared by the OECD, the World Bank and the UN on incorporating green growth and sustainable development policies into
structural reform agendas, tailored to specific country conditions and level of development. We
also acknowledge the G20 efforts to voluntarily self-report on current actions taken to integrate
green growth and sustainable development into structural reform agendas. We will self-report
again in 2013, on a voluntary basis, and ask appropriate officials to report back on countries’
efforts and progress on incorporating green growth policies in structural reform agendas and in
relevant national plans to promote sustainable development.
74. We welcome the progress report on fossil fuel subsidies, and we reaffirm our commitment to
rationalize and phase out inefficient fossil fuel subsides that encourage wasteful consumption
over the medium term while providing targeted support for the poorest. We ask Finance Ministers
to report back by the next Summit on progress made, and acknowledging the relevance of
accountability and transparency, to explore options for a voluntary peer review process for G20
members by their next meeting. We also welcome a dialogue on fossil fuel subsidies with other
groups already engaged in this work.
75. In Cannes we committed to promote low-carbon development strategies in order to optimize the
potential for green growth and ensure sustainable development in our countries and beyond. We
therefore welcome the report on clean energy and energy efficiency technologies and
acknowledge the G20 countries’ efforts to foster investment in these technologies through the
sharing of national experiences regarding challenges for technology deployment.
76. We welcome the establishment of a Global Marine Environment Protection Best Practices
Sharing Mechanism website, and look forward to its launch in accordance with the Cannes
Intensifying the fight against corruption
77. Corruption impedes economic growth, threatens the integrity of markets, undermines fair
competition, distorts resource allocation, destroys public trust and undermines the rule of law. We
call on all relevant stakeholders to play an active role in fighting corruption.
78. Closing the implementation and enforcement gap remains an important priority, and we continue
to make significant progress towards the full implementation of the Seoul G20 Anti-Corruption
Action Plan, and the commitments made in the Cannes Monitoring Report. We reiterate our
commitment to the ratification and full implementation of the United Nations Convention against
Corruption (UNCAC), and to more active engagement with the OECD working group on bribery
on a voluntary basis. We welcome continuing engagement from the B20 in the fight against
corruption and, in accordance with the Terms of Reference of the review mechanism, will involve
the private sector and civil society in the UNCAC review process on a voluntary basis. We
endorse today the G20 Anti-Corruption Working Group principles for denial of entry to our
countries of corrupt officials, and those who corrupt them, and will continue to develop
frameworks for cooperation. We also endorse the Working Group’s principles for financial and
asset disclosure systems for relevant officials to prevent, identify and appropriately manage
conflicts of interest.
79. We commit to enforcing anti-corruption legislation, and we will pursue those who receive and
solicit bribes as well as those who pay them in line with our countries’ legislation. To help facilitate
international cooperation among G20 and non-G20 governments in their investigation and
prosecution of corruption, we will publish a guide on Mutual Legal Assistance from G20 countries,
as well as information on tracing assets in G20 jurisdictions. We renew our commitment to deny
safe haven to the proceeds of corruption and to the recovery and restitution of stolen assets.
80. We extend the mandate of the Anti-Corruption Working Group for two years to the end of 2014
and request the Working Group to prepare a comprehensive action plan, as well as a second
Working Group Monitoring Report, both to be presented for consideration and adoption by
Sherpas by the end of 2012.
81. In light of the interconnectedness of the world economy, the G20 has led to a new paradigm of
multilateral co-operation that is necessary in order to tackle current and future challenges
effectively. The informal and flexible character of the G20 enables it to facilitate international
economic and financial cooperation, and address the challenges confronting the global economy.
It is important that we continue to further improve the transparency and effectiveness of the G20,
and ensure that it is able to respond to pressing needs. As a contribution to this, in line with the
commitment made in Cannes, Sherpas have developed a set of evolving G20 working practices.
82. An informal meeting of G20 Ministers of Foreign Affairs was held in Los Cabos in February, which
explored the ways in which G20 member countries could contribute more effectively to address
key challenges in global governance.
83. Recognizing the far-reaching impact of G20 decisions, we welcome the extensive outreach efforts
undertaken by the Mexican Presidency, including the meetings of Business-20, Labor-20, Youth-
20, and Think-20. We will continue developing efforts with non-members, regional and
international organizations, including the UN and other actors. In line with the Cannes mandate,
in order to ensure our outreach remains consistent and effective, we welcome a set of principles
in this area, developed by Sherpas.
84. We thank international organizations, including the UN, IMF, World Bank, WTO, FSB, ILO, FAO,
and OECD, as well as civil society, for their input into the G20 process. Their reports and
recommendations have provided valuable inputs to G20 discussions, in areas ranging from
sustainable development to financial regulation.
85. We look forward to the rest of the work that will take place during Mexico’s Presidency until
On 1 December, 2012, Russia will start chairing the G20. We will convene in St.
Petersburg, under the Chairmanship of Russia. We thank Mexico for hosting a successful Los